Properties of Daily Helium Fluxes

Phys. Rev. Lett. 128, 231102 (2022)
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We present the precision measurement of 2824 daily helium fluxes in cosmic rays from May 20, 2011 to October 29, 2019 in the rigidity interval from 1.71 to 100 GV based on $7.6 \times 10^8$ helium nuclei collected with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) aboard the International Space Station. The helium flux and the helium to proton flux ratio exhibit variations on multiple timescales. In nearly all the time intervals from 2014 to 2018, we observed recurrent helium flux variations with a period of 27 days. Shorter periods of 9 days and 13.5 days are observed in 2016. The strength of all three periodicities changes with time and rigidity. In the entire time period, we found that below ∼7  GV the helium flux exhibits larger time variations than the proton flux, and above ∼7  GV the helium to proton flux ratio is time independent. Remarkably, below 2.4 GV a hysteresis between the helium to proton flux ratio and the helium flux was observed at greater than the 7σ level. This shows that at low rigidity the modulation of the helium to proton flux ratio is different before and after the solar maximum in 2014.

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Table of Properties of Daily Helium Fluxes

External Databases
AMS Data at CRDB (Cosmic-ray DataBase)

The CRDB at LPSC/IN2P3/CNRS, online since 2013, is fully described in Maurin et al. (2014, 2020)

AMS Data at Cosmic Ray DataBase (CRDB) © SSDC

The CRDB © SSDC is developed at the Space Science Data Center, a facility of the Italian Space Agency (ASI).