Temporal Structures in Electron Spectra and Charge Sign Effects in Galactic Cosmic Rays
We present the precision measurements of 11 years of daily cosmic electron fluxes in the rigidity interval from 1.00 to 41.9 GV based on $2.0 \times 10^8$ electrons collected with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) aboard the International Space Station. The electron fluxes exhibit variations on multiple timescales. Recurrent electron flux variations with periods of 27 days, 13.5 days, and 9 days are observed. We find that the electron fluxes show distinctly different time variations from the proton fluxes. Remarkably, a hysteresis between the electron flux and the proton flux is observed with a significance of greater than 6σ at rigidities below 8.5 GV. Furthermore, significant structures in the electron-proton hysteresis are observed corresponding to sharp structures in both fluxes. This continuous daily electron data provide unique input to the understanding of the charge sign dependence of cosmic rays over an 11-year solar cycle.